Heating Values and Moisture Content of Biomass materials:

Oil Yields of Common Crops for BioDiesel:

Crop

kg oil/ha


litres oil/ha

lbs oil/acrecre

Gals
/Acre

corn (maize)

145


172

129

18

cashew nut

148


176

132

19

oats

183


217

163

23

lupine

195


232

175

25

kenaf

230


273

205

29

calendula

256


305

229

33

cotton

273


325

244

35

hemp

305


363

272

39

soybean

375


446

335

48

coffee

386


459

345

49

linseed (flax)

402


478

359

51

hazelnuts

405


482

362

51

euphorbia

440


524

393

56

pumpkin seed

449


534

401

57

coriander

450


536

402

57

mustard seed

481


572

430

61

camelina

490


583

438

62

sesame

585


696

522

74

safflower

655


779

585

83

rice

696


828

622

88

tung oil tree

790


940

705

100

sunflowers

800


952

714

102

cocoa (cacao)

863


1,026

771

110

peanuts

890


1,059

795

113

opium poppy

978


1,163

873

124

rapeseed

1,000


1,190

893

127

olives

1,019


1,212

910

129

castor beans

1,188


1,413

1,061

151

pecan nuts

1,505


1,791

1,344

191

jojoba

1,528


1,818

1,365

194

Jatropha

1,590


1,892

1,420

202

macadamia nuts

1,887


2,246

1,685

240

Brazil nuts

2,010


2,392

1,795

255

avocado

2,217


2,638

1,980

282

coconut

2,260


2,689

2,018

287

oil palm

5,000


5,950

4,465

635

Chinese tallow

5,500


6,545

4,912

699

Algae

79,832


95,000

71,226

10,000

BIOMASS MATERIALS

Average  heating value (Dry Basis) MJ/kg.

Moisture Content % wet weight

Barley Straw

17.3

8 to 20

Bean Straw

16.8

8 to 20

Coffee Hulls

28.8

70

Corn Cobs

18.9

8 to 20

Corn Stalks

18.3

8 to 20

Cotton Gin trash

16.4

20

Olive pits
(Air Dried)

21,4

10

Peanut Husks
(Air Dried)

19.7

10

Rice Hulls

15.0

10

Sunflower Hulls

20.0

10

Sunflower Stalks

21.0

10

Walnut hulls

 20.4

7 to10

Wheat Straw

18.9

7 to 10

Pine Bark

20.0

7 to 10

Beech (Fresh-felled)

19.0

40

Fir (Kiln Dried)

17.8

8

Birch (Fresh-felled)

19.0

31

Oak (Freshly-felled)

18.3

35

Pine (Freshly-felled)

19.9

40

For every 100 kilograms of fruit bunches, typically 22 kilograms of palm oil and 1.6 kilograms of palm kernel oil can be extracted.

The high productivity of the oil palm at producing oil has made it the prime source of vegetable oil for many tropical countries. It is also likely to be used for producing the necessary vegetable oil for biodiesel, an example being a planned refinery in Darwin, Australia which will import the palm oil from Indonesia and Malaysia.

Link to Wikepedia for Oil Palm

Eskom Weak-minded FW 17-07-2009.pdf Eskom Weak-minded FW 17-07-2009.pdf
Size : 0.678 Kb
Type : pdf

NOTE:
The yields from the traditional “Oil-seed Crops” such as Soya, sunflower, canola, peanuts etc are a mere fraction of what can be extracted from the seeds and fruits of some trees. Trees typically are planted  for a longer-term plantation operation (up to 50 years between re-plantings) and do not require regular replanting cycles.


The table herewith provides comparative statistics that show why Oil Palm, Jatropha etc are becoming so popular.

The trees endure for 30 to 50 years and do not require frequent replanting.

While Jatropha pulp residue was considered unpalatable for use as a livestock feed, recent developments reported by D1 Oils have now solved this problem and;

The Jatropha press-cake can now be utilised as a high-protein livestock resource! 

The Jatropha tree is very hardy and will grow in low rainfall areas or semi-desert. However if high yields are expected, then the reality is that fruit will only be yielded in commercial quantities, if the plantation is adequately nourished and watered.

Oil Palm is the most developed economic source of oil from cultivated crops, but requires  a particularly tropical environment for optimum growth.

Extraction of Biofuel from Algae
is even more promising but is still in the trial-research stage!

The yield given for Jatropha is in line with other local practical observation and research results.

Figures for Oil Palm
reflect the current commercial success of this plant for BioFuel use; but note special climatic conditions needed.

The documents listed below can be downloaded from this website

Jatropha CURCAS.pdf Jatropha CURCAS.pdf
Size : 0.239 Kb
Type : pdf
Jatropha Curcas Plantations.pdf Jatropha Curcas Plantations.pdf
Size : 0.355 Kb
Type : pdf
Pappea Capensis 05022009.pdf Pappea Capensis 05022009.pdf
Size : 0.114 Kb
Type : pdf
Sp599 Ximena Caffra.pdf Sp599 Ximena Caffra.pdf
Size : 0.156 Kb
Type : pdf
Solvent Extraction for Jatropha Oil.pdf Solvent Extraction for Jatropha Oil.pdf
Size : 0.094 Kb
Type : pdf
For each hectare of oil palm, which is harvested year-round, the annual production averages 10 tonnes of fruit, which yields 3,000 kg of pericarp oil, and 750 kg of seed kernels, which yield  250 kg of high quality palm kernel oil as well as  500 kg  of kernel meal. Palm fronds and kernel meal are processed for use as livestock feed[2]. Some varieties have even higher productivity which has led to their consideration for producing the vegetable oil needed for biodiesel.

Link to Wikipedia for Oil Palm
farmerfactsheet[1] BioFuels.pdf farmerfactsheet[1] BioFuels.pdf
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Type : pdf
Moringa Trees 05022009.pdf Moringa Trees 05022009.pdf
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Type : pdf
Subsidy_Contract.pdf Subsidy_Contract.pdf
Size : 0.146 Kb
Type : pdf